"Who I am?" The metaphysical anthropology of Yuri Mamleev

"Who I am?" The metaphysical anthropology of Yuri Mamleev

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By Rosa Semikina

Yuri Mamleev is a prominent figure in Russian literature that many consider to be something of a myth, as well as being a radical and mysterious writer. We can even say that he was the “pioneer” of contemporary Russian literature, when he began to write in 1960: his writings were very “different” from the artistic trends and currents that dominated at the time. Mamleev was a mystic and an esotericist, defining himself as a spirit or witness who received messages that came from another reality; that is why his works create a very particular world: the dead come back to life, monsters, psychopaths, maniacs, murderers and rationalist suicides appear along with marginal beings, “subhumans” and non-anthropomorphic creatures. These “disconcerting beings” (Provocators) can only be found in extreme and exceptional situations (at the borders or in the middle of the “gap” that exists between Being and Non-Being); all of them explore the mysterious, the inexplicable, the transcendent, they reason about Eternity and Infinity, Death and Immortality, trying to find evidence that proves the existence of divinity, trying to find their “way to the Abyss” and answer this question. Eternally disturbing: “who am I?”

 Of course, this question is asked not in a psychological sense, but in a metaphysical one … trying to find evidence that proves the existence of divinity, trying to find his “way to the Abyss” and answer this eternally disturbing question: “who am I?” Of course, this question is asked not in a psychological sense, but in a metaphysical one … trying to find evidence that proves the existence of divinity, trying to find his “way to the Abyss” and answer this eternally disturbing question: “who am I?” Of course, this question is asked not in a psychological sense, but in a metaphysical one …

Mamleev explains this dimension of his work in an interview: “My work is a materialistic description of earthly hell, of spiritual disasters, of the hidden and unconventional sides of the human soul.” He admits that his philosophy “was born out of a negative assessment of the world.” But the “black night of the soul”, which he experiences once inside him and which is a constant in his characters, is nothing more than a necessary stage of the “initiation” that leads us to light, to God and to catharsis.

Therefore, representing his characters in a phantasmagoric and surrealist way, the situations they live and the events they experience has, in the first place, a metaphysical, philosophical justification (because according to Mamleev the “metaphysical realism” of his work “requires before that nothing immerse ourselves intensely in our reality while we approach global and metaphysical problems “) or” intuitive “that allows us to unravel the subtext that his writings hide. Second, it is about causing a shock or a blow that causes the reader to stop, reflect and begin to “rebuild” the human alchemy that is behind all that. Of course, this “meta-exposure” does not guarantee the return of complete spiritual integrity, but it cannot be ignored “that such an operation involves a cleansing process.” For instance,Evening thoughts, Mikhail Saveliev, “a well-known murderer and thief who is very old”, remembers one day an event that took place on some Easter date: while still young, he entered a foreign apartment and killed two people with an ax, they were a man and his wife, but “suddenly a little boy, about five years old, came out of the bathtub, located at the end of the corridor, who had not seen or understood what was happening: he was white, innocent, bright and tender. He looks at me, at his uncle, and suddenly he says: Christ is risen! He says that with so much love and joy that I understood what Easter really was. At that moment I got sick; in a single instant I felt like a lightning bolt went through my body and I fell to the ground unconscious ”. This crude and innocent child saves him, because his words have a supernatural power:

Mamleev’s characters are often described as monsters, but that’s a superficial appreciation: “They are monsters because they want to unravel the mysteries that lie beyond the human mind,” says Mameleev. “They want to break the flow of everyday life and answer eternal questions outside of our experience, so they inevitably turn into monsters. I am interested precisely in these travelers and heroes who come from the beyond ”.

Mamleev’s unusual patterns of philosophical and artistic thought naturally cause discrepancies when defining his creative method, even leading him to say that “his creations could be considered as a kind of metaphysical realism.” Mamleev has published more than forty books in Russia and abroad, as well as being the founder of a literary and philosophical school or having been awarded the Andrei Bely Prize and the Pushkin International Prize. It is known that a group of young authors was formed around him and all of them participated in a philosophical-literary project known as the “Mystery of the Infinite.” Most of the ideas of that project were published in various almanacs such as Mystery of the Infinite , The Equinox andEquinox. Towards a new mystique . Since 2005, the Ripol-klassik publishing house has published a collection entitled “Library of metaphysical realism”, which is also known as “Meta-prose”. We could say that Mamleev is the founder of a literary trend.

Mamleev explains his conception of metaphysical realism and metaphysics in general in his book The Destiny of Being .

If academic philosophy defines metaphysics as the origin of supra-sensitive ideas of being, “thereby denoting the attempt of both thought and reason to go beyond the empirical world to reach an extra-empirical reality”, then we can to say that it is about the knowledge of “being as being”, that is, of “knowledge of God and of the supra-sensible substance” (Aristotle), which later led philosophy to consider metaphysics as a form of ” interrogation with which we try to encompass the total set of being and so that finally he, which we constantly question, also interrogates us ”(M. Heidegger, Fundamental Problems of Phenomenology ).

Y. Mamleev considers that metaphysics is part of the “world of spiritual essences”, that is, of “the sphere of the supra-cosmic, of the divine, that which is part of the original and spiritual in itself: we can say that the world of the ‘invisible’ cosmos is part of another kind of knowledge ”. This is what Mamleev calls the metaphysical principles (or “realities”) that underlie the universe and that reveal the “nebulous course that other worlds follow” and times, all this helps us to decipher the hidden symbols of human existence . Those “everlasting questions that the human mind usually directs to that Primordial principle – however naive they may be from the point of view of the absolute -, which remains silent, often have a metaphysical dimension.”

The “metaphysical reality” is present a priori in all worlds, regardless of the degree to which they have “materialized”, so it is possible that they are expressed with greater depth and fullness in literature than in philosophy. This is because the “image” is much more multifaceted than the “idea”, since the former “expresses with greater ease what cannot be thought” ( Freedom in Russian poetry ). The heroes of this kind of literature would be above all philosophical and metaphysical realities such as Nothing, the thing-in-itself, the transcendental “I”, and so on. It is possible that this is the kind of literature that Daniel Andreev talks about in his book The Rose of the World: “Only in this way will you be able to understand the sense of things inherent in the Rose of Peace: thus you will be able to pierce the physical reality to be able to access different levels, both material and spiritual. <…> I think such art… should be called translucent realism or meta-realism ”. Without a doubt, Y. Mamleev has been the author who has most developed such meta-realism.

Mamleev’s anthropology starts from an understanding of cosmicism and the metaphysical stratifications of man, not to mention the metaphysical connection between man and the world. According to Mamleev “… man is a space where heaven and earth are connected. Furthermore, man is connected to the physical world, the intermediate world (that is, the subtle and parallel world), and the divine world. Therefore, there are abysses within man that belong to superior worlds, divine and … satanic … Man is both a beast and an angel, he is connected with beings that are both below and above him … meeting inside heaven and earth ”( Eternal Russia ).

Mamleev does not consider himself to be the creator of metaphysical realism and that is why he cites as examples of this art the creations of Dante or the spiritual alchemy of the Middle Ages that revealed the existence of a hidden man who “cannot be reduced to the superficial knowledge that he provides us the most sophisticated modern psychology ”. Only Russian literature, which Mamleev considers the most philosophical of all, has “been able to illuminate … the spiritual abysses of man and his constant willingness to go towards ecstasy or dreams …”, so that “literature has become a way of life and death ”and the text in a“ proof of the inner life of man ”.

The human microcosm is a reflection of the macrocosm of the world: the metaphysical uniqueness of man does not only consist in being a place where heaven and earth are “connected,” but also human beings are “fissures” through which it can enter other worlds. The human soul (Mamleev calls it “the archetype of the soul of the Universe”) contains within it a universal code. Man as a psycho-bio-social phenomenon does not matter (“especially because it has been widely studied in literature”), since the goal of the metaphysical realist is to know “the invisible, the hidden man” and for that it is necessary to go further of deep psychology. The man of flesh and blood is nothing more than a fragment of the “metaphysical place that man occupies.” And if traditional realism leads us to propose the existence of two abysses within our soul, the lower and the higher, then we can say that Mamleev’s goal is to create a multidimensional vision of the inner space of man that allows us to observe a whole multitude of abysses within us. According to H. Hesse, the “life of all men oscillates no longer between two poles, for example, the instinct and the soul, or the saint and the libertine, but it oscillates between thousands, between countless pairs of poles…. it is a fatal innate need in all men to represent each his self as a unit…. sometime in delicately organized human souls and with special talent conditions the presentiment of their diversity arises… But in reality no self, not even the most naive, is a unit, but a highly multiform world, a small sky of stars, a chaos of forms, gradations and states, inheritances and possibilities … And, of course, the chest, the body is never more than one; but the souls that live inside are not two, not five, but innumerable; man is an onion with a hundred fabrics, a fabric made up of many threads ”(The steppe wolf ).

Such an idea (or “special knowledge”) of man and the world implies that the writer has a very specific task: first, he has to see behind visible life the glimpses of a “much more formidable reality”, which “must to be stripped naked and made visible and, despite the overwhelming nature of such a task, we must discover the abysses of being; second, it is necessary to reveal the inner depths of the human soul that we observe in our behavior, spiritual life and subconscious fears. Once we get the characters to express these behaviors, we get what Dostoevsky calls fantastic realism ”(see: The voice out of nowhere. Stories. M., 1991). Mamleev found several ways to represent this metaphysical being or “metaphysical situation of man.” For example, through the “depth of symbolism”, but in such a way that it is clearly perceived that man is not only the human being, but that “in its depths… another being is hidden”, a secret and transcendental being that he is beyond himself as a man of flesh and blood and that we have no idea of ​​his existence (“since the man of flesh and blood is nothing more than a fragment of human reality”). Another way of representing this problem would be to say that the outer man is nothing more than a projection of the inner man, a slit or window that allows us to glimpse a kind of secret essence. But nevertheless, there is a third representation that consists in thinking that man is a metaphysical entity, an original and eternal monad, a metaphysical archetype, “a certain autonomous kingdom that, of course, not of this world …” Man is not only a being mysterious, but also unknowable that is “rooted inwardly in the infinite and the unknown. The limits of our self-knowledge prove this point ”. It is not about some type or specific character, but about a “metaphysical centrality” proper to our interior.

Mamleev does not consider himself to be the creator of metaphysical realism and that is why he cites as examples of this art the creations of Dante or the spiritual alchemy of the Middle Ages that revealed the existence of a hidden man who “cannot be reduced to the superficial knowledge that he provides us the most sophisticated modern psychology ”. Only Russian literature, which Mamleev considers the most philosophical of all, has “been able to illuminate … the spiritual abysses of man and his constant willingness to go towards ecstasy or dreams …”, so that “literature has become a way of life and death ”and the text in a“ proof of the inner life of man ”. The heroes of Russian literature “constantly slide into the abyss … towards a failure that becomes a complete failure of existence due to the instability and catastrophic and apocalyptic character of earthly life.” An ontological turn took place in the Russian literature of the 19th century, as the works of Gogol and Dostoevsky gave birth to the metaphysical literature of the future. NV Gogol was the first to venture into this world that was beyond the spirit of the real world by calling his characters “dead souls.” In those words we can “see” the metaphysical horror of a writer approaching the abysses of being. On the other hand, FM Dostoevsky’s “fantastic realism” breaks with the aesthetic codes of the 19th century, since his artistic search is based on a “fundamental and key” idea that life is more fantastic than any fantasy. All of this defines the true program of metaphysical realism.

N. Berdiaev said that F. Dostoevsky was “the greatest Russian metaphysician”, a “metaphysical symbolist”, and thus he was convinced that the artistic world embodied in Dostoevsky’s novels could only be understood in the light of his discoveries about the metaphysical essence of man and his position in the world. When Dostoevsky affirmed “I am not a psychologist …” he precisely wanted to imply that psychosocial man is impossible to represent if his metaphysical dimension is ignored, so that man must be considered as an original and eternal monad, a metaphysical archetype, a concept key to the ontological structure of reality and a “cosmic enigma” (I. Yevlampiev). The unfolding of the hidden metaphysical code that is beyond the empirical (or “external” man, as Mamleev calls it) is an attempt to reach a “higher realism” (Dostoevsky: “I am a realist in the highest sense of the term, that is, someone who describes the depths of the human soul”). Mamleev, who follows Gogol and Dostoevsky in this, considered that such antinomies, abysses, orphans, interior destructions, omnipresences and the search for God on the part of the Russian soul, are not artificial, but are part of “the metaphysical hysteria of the spirit Russian, his attempt to go beyond all limits and norms ”(N. Berdyaev).

Saltikov-Shchedrin understood that Dostoevsky “not only distances himself from us”, but that the secret that makes him an Other lies in the fact that the writer “penetrates beyond the field of the immediate, into the foresight and the presentiment, this being the field of the great questions of humanity ”. It is precisely in this “field” where the “hidden, the incomprehensible, the chaotic, the grandiose and the bottomless abyss” are perceived, the place where Mamleev’s artistic gaze penetrates, because it is precisely this search that determines the being of all his characters or “metaphysical beings”. However, Mamleev gives him being a real existence, which brings him closer to the magical realism of 20th century Latin American literature, where the real and the magical, the mundane and the fantastic merge. But unlike magical realism Mamleev “did not resort to myth, but to a kind of very traditional and ordinary prose, incorporating all facets of reality into it… as a metaphorical fabric… So we are talking about a completely new genre… where the metaphorical, metaphysical and symbolic end up being ‘incorporated’ into the realistic narrative and all this reaches a synthesis ”(1). Such a synthesis is “one of the variants of all the artistic processes of the 20th century where non-classical systems of thought interact” (2). metaphysical and symbolic end up being ‘incorporated’ into the realistic story and all this reaches a synthesis ”(1). Such a synthesis is “one of the variants of all the artistic processes of the 20th century where non-classical systems of thought interact” (2). metaphysical and symbolic end up being ‘incorporated’ into the realistic story and all this reaches a synthesis ”(1). Such a synthesis is “one of the variants of all the artistic processes of the 20th century where non-classical systems of thought interact” (2).

the path to the transcendental that Mamleev’s characters follow is always conditioned by realism. In the story of The Runnerthere is talk of Vasia Kurolesov’s ability to fly throughout the universe, visible and invisible, it is the result of his imagination, being in that sense a consequence (a symptom) of the mental illness of a man who tried to “go beyond himself himself ”and exceeded his limits. 

However, it is possible to speak of another kind of “interaction”. Mamleev’s characters, captured by this “other reality”, change not only externally, but also in their “essence”, that is, a human alchemy takes place. Mamleev calls the “miraculous” transformations of his characters metaphors: contemporary art criticism considers that these are not metaphors but simulacra, artificial images or “images of an absent reality”. The works of Yuri Mamleev are usually overloaded with quotes and are immersed in a very broad cultural and artistic context, revealing the existence of different literary traditions. There are clear traces of traditions such as the Menippeae (Roman satirical genre, ndt) and the grotesque realities of carnival, where death and celebration converge, in short stories such asThe wedding and Cruel Encounters . The monstrous characters in Cruel Encounters seem to come out of Bosch’s and Goya’s engravings: bodies with two heads, walking corpses, and a bear-man. The influence of Gothic horror literature and the romanticism of Hoffmann and E. Poe on such narratives is also evident. In addition, the inspiration he draws from classical Russian fantasy is very evident in Mamleev’s writings, especially everything that has to do with the multiple references to The Coffin Maker and the Feast during the Pushkin Plague or the Diaries of a Madman and Dead souls by Nikolai Gogol, but above all the references to Fyodor Dostoevsky are very clear.

Mamleev’s poetry only outwardly resembles postmodern elements such as virtual reality and simulacrum images embodied in the rough, gloomy, shocking, phenomenal and mixed intertextuality of Mamleev that he polemicizes with all the authors he cites (understanding the latter in the sense of as wide as possible). The playful variability that develops in all these collisions or the way problems are solved sometimes creates the impression that the author’s thinking is very incomplete and contributes to his works being seen as an open and infinite text. However, everyday reality is the foundation of all of Mamleev’s works. The unknown is not conceived as something fantastic, but as an “intuitive spiritual reality.”

Vasia Kurolesov, one of those “metaphysical travelers” from Mamleev ( The Abyss ), confesses: “Everything is in its place, as it should be, God is God and yet, even after that, I keep running and running! Where should I run now, having found Divinity? Only towards You, oh Lord, who are inside me, towards me, or instead I run towards a distance that no sign can reveal and that emptiness cannot express… ”.

They are words that show us the way to the super-real or to an external Abyss – which is beyond everything known and imaginable – and internal – where the mysteries of the human soul lie. In any case, it is inaccurate to define the travels that occur in these works with the epithet of “space travel.” Furthermore, the path to the transcendental that Mamleev’s characters follow is always conditioned by realism. In the story of The Runnerthere is talk of Vasia Kurolesov’s ability to fly throughout the universe, visible and invisible, it is the result of his imagination, being in that sense a consequence (a symptom) of the mental illness of a man who tried to “go beyond himself himself ”and exceeded his limits. The most important part of the story is in the chapter entitled “Notes from a madman”, divided into two parts that correspond to two phases of the disease and two different versions of his fantasy: the first part is called “Notes from Vasia. Kurolesov “(” when he ran detaching himself from his body “) and the second part is called” Notes from Vasia Kurolesov after Zamorisheva saw that he himself had become a monster from another world. ” The character of Vasia Kurolesov refers to the literary tradition of the “mad wise men” (cf .:Gogol’s Diaries of a Madman ). Despite having fallen into a kind of manic psychosis, Vasia retains her keen powers of observation and insight, being able to analyze and evaluate everything she sees.

Contrary to what happens with postmodernism, it is not Vasya who is sick (disease is an artistic convention, Dostoevsky said), it is modern and Philistine “average men” who are sick because they have moved away from traditional utopias and myths. religious: “My thought and my self fly over all these shitty worlds, even if they are blissful. Wherever I look and spy, wherever I stick my nose … I give passersby a taste of what insanity is and scare the inhabitants of this place. It is as if I had evaded all the cosmic laws, thanks to the will of the Invisible, and with that I could scare everyone with my particularity. Oh little stars, little stars! I’m dying of laughter”.The dream of a ridiculous man.

 In this story, the life of the children of a beautiful star is narrated into which a “ridiculous man” falls by accident, “they lived in the state in which our ancestors existed in earthly paradise. Between them there was love and children were born, but I never observed among them the cruel outbursts of lust that seizes almost everyone on our Earth, and which is the source of most of the sins of our humanity. They rejoiced when their children were born because they were new participants in their happiness. There were no quarrels between them, no jealousy, and they didn’t even understand what that meant. Their children belonged to everyone, because they all made up a family. They hardly had any illnesses, although there was death; their elders died slowly, as if they fell asleep, surrounded by people who said goodbye to them, blessing them, and saying goodbye with happy smiles. You didn’t see pain or tears when this happened, but a love that seemed to be multiplied to the point of ecstasy, but a calm, complete and contemplative ecstasy ”. Vasia Kurolesov parodies Dostoevsky’s utopia when he describes one of the many dimensions of the Universe that he peered into: “Your life, late mother, does not run like ours: it is very, very slow, they are a kind of parasites that live for millions and millions of years. They live happily, satisfied with themselves, as if they were gods whose bodies are made of the finest substance of all … And what good thing have they found in such joy and happiness? 

Vasia also criticizes the underworld and demons when viewing them from the perspective of experience and the most important human needs: “Demons… live even worse than gods. Mere bastards who only work for themselves, but most of all, they fear their Master. And their greatest fear is seeing the Abyss, which means that they will never know the depth of reality. Celestials, especially those of very high rank, gather all the time with their Master saying that we live in a clear world where no one knows the greatest of all mysteries.

Nothing but stupidity and no Abyss within themselves, they have just happily sat there for millions of years. Our compatriots would go crazy living that way. However, Vasia also criticizes the underworld and demons when viewing them from the perspective of the most important human experience and needs: “The demons… live even worse than the gods. Mere bastards who only work for themselves, but most of all, they fear their Master. And their greatest fear is seeing the Abyss, which means that they will never know the depth of reality. Celestials, especially those of very high rank, gather all the time with their Master saying that we live in a clear world where no one knows the greatest of all mysteries. The other demons tremble upon hearing about the Spirit of their Master and believe that they will disappear once they meet it. They live in fear ”. However, Vasia also criticizes the underworld and demons when viewing them from the perspective of the most important human experience and needs: “The demons… live even worse than the gods. Mere bastards who only work for themselves, but most of all, they fear their Master. 

And their greatest fear is seeing the Abyss, which means that they will never know the depth of reality. Celestials, especially those of very high rank, gather all the time with their Master saying that we live in a clear world where no one knows the greatest of all mysteries. The other demons tremble upon hearing about the Spirit of their Master and believe that they will disappear once they meet it. They live in fear ”. However, Vasia also criticizes the underworld and demons when viewing them from the perspective of the most important human experience and needs: “The demons… live even worse than the gods. Mere bastards who only work for themselves, but most of all, they fear their Master. And their greatest fear is seeing the Abyss, which means that they will never know the depth of reality. Celestials, especially those of very high rank, gather all the time with their Master saying that we live in a clear world where no one knows the greatest of all mysteries. The other demons tremble upon hearing about the Spirit of their Master and believe that they will disappear once they meet it. They live in fear ”. Vasia also criticizes the underworld and demons when viewing them from the perspective of experience and the most important human needs: “Demons… live even worse than gods. Mere bastards who only work for themselves, but most of all, they fear their Master. And their greatest fear is seeing the Abyss, which means that they will never know the depth of reality. Celestials, especially those of very high rank, gather all the time with their Master saying that we live in a clear world where no one knows the greatest of all mysteries. The other demons tremble upon hearing about the Spirit of their Master and believe that they will disappear once they meet it. They live in fear ”. 

Y. Mamleev and T. Goricheva wrote a book called The New Town of Kitezhin which they explain their cosmological or metaphysical conception of Russia. According to them, “the historical essence of Russia lies far beyond our earthly world and is one of the deepest mysteries of the relationship between God and the Cosmos … Our historical Russia is only one of the many manifestations of Russia.

Vasia also criticizes the underworld and demons when viewing them from the perspective of experience and the most important human needs: “Demons… live even worse than gods. Mere bastards who only work for themselves, but most of all, they fear their Master. And their greatest fear is seeing the Abyss, which means that they will never know the depth of reality. Celestials, especially those of very high rank, gather all the time with their Master saying that we live in a clear world where no one knows the greatest of all mysteries. The other demons tremble upon hearing about the Spirit of their Master and believe that they will disappear once they meet it. They live in fear ”. “Demons… live even worse than gods. Mere bastards who only work for themselves, but most of all, they fear their Master. And their greatest fear is seeing the Abyss, which means that they will never know the depth of reality. Celestials, especially those of very high rank, gather all the time with their Master saying that we live in a clear world where no one knows the greatest of all mysteries. The other demons tremble upon hearing about the Spirit of their Master and believe that they will disappear once they meet it. They live in fear ”. “Demons… live even worse than gods. Mere bastards who only work for themselves, but most of all, they fear their Master.

 And their greatest fear is seeing the Abyss, which means that they will never know the depth of reality. Celestials, especially those of very high rank, gather all the time with their Master saying that we live in a clear world where no one knows the greatest of all mysteries. The other demons tremble upon hearing about the Spirit of their Master and believe that they will disappear once they meet it. They live in fear ”. especially those who are of very high rank, gather all the time with their Master saying that we live in a clear world where no one knows the greatest of all mysteries. The other demons tremble upon hearing about the Spirit of their Master and believe that they will disappear once they meet it. They live in fear ”. especially those who are of very high rank, gather all the time with their Master saying that we live in a clear world where no one knows the greatest of all mysteries. The other demons tremble upon hearing about the Spirit of their Master and believe that they will disappear once they meet it. They live in fear ”.

Another of Mamleev’s myths is his concept of the “metaphysical self”, of the “God who exists in me”, which he has outlined in his philosophical works ( The destiny of being ; Eternal Russia ) and whose origins are in Eastern metaphysics. This concept holds that man is capable of finding God within himself. Not just a spark of God or your consciousness, but of God as a whole to the point of fully coinciding with the Absolute.

Mamleev maintains that Vasia’s aspiration to reach the Abyss (even after having penetrated the Absolute, that is, God) is a manifestation of the Russian spirit, whose cosmological principle is mediating between the Absolute (including God himself) and the Abyss that exists beyond it. Such an interpretation of the Russian spirit leads Vasya to realize that Russia is not only one sixth of the globe, but something else: “By the way, Russia is not alone in this sinful land.” It is necessary to explain this sentence: Y. Mamleev and T. Goricheva wrote a book called The New Town of Kitezhin which they explain their cosmological or metaphysical conception of Russia. According to them, “the historical essence of Russia lies far beyond our earthly world and is one of the deepest mysteries of the relationship between God and the Cosmos … Our historical Russia is only one of the many manifestations of Russia. Cosmological that we can find on other planets and in other space-time realities. The idea of ​​Russia exists beyond our earthly and human world, if the latter is true, then this idea will inevitably manifest itself in other worlds ”(3). This concept of a Cosmological Russia is found in N. Berdiaev and the “radical Slavophiles”, who linked the idea of ​​Russia to the idea of ​​humanity, Hence, the beings that live in Cosmological Russia are not only analogous to their terrestrial counterparts, but are linked to a certain human archetype. It is possible that there are Russians in other Russian-Worlds living in the midst of “anguish” and “madness.” Of course, for that to happen, these beings must embody a Russian idea adapted to their world.

The story that tells the flight of the “mad wise man” into Eternity actually reveals the myth of Cosmological Russia in which Mamleev believes.

Another of Mamleev’s myths is his concept of the “metaphysical self”, of the “God who exists in me”, which he has outlined in his philosophical works ( The destiny of being ; Eternal Russia ) and whose origins are in Eastern metaphysics. This concept holds that man is capable of finding God within himself. Not just a spark of God or your consciousness, but of God as a whole to the point of fully coinciding with the Absolute. One of Mamleyev’s many metaphysical travelers, Andrei Artemievich ( The Road to the Abyss), “He preached and practiced a certain ancient and traditional teaching (Vedanta) born in India, but once it was understood and enlightened by the fiery Russian spirit, it ended up transforming itself”, that is why he taught his students “the concept of the metaphysical self ”as follows:“ According to Advaita-Vedanta… the absolute and supreme principle, eternal and supra-mundane, which the majority call God is found ‘within’ of us, the rest is nothing other than a horrible dream. Everyone can discover this Higher Self or God that exists within oneself and with which they can even identify, but for this it is necessary to eliminate all false identification they have with their body, psyche, individuality and mind, in that way they cease to be ‘ trembling creatures’… And man becomes what he really is: we will not be,

Mamleev’s philosophical and artistic anthropology is a synthesis of the concepts of Russian religious philosophy and the “Russian idea”, especially the theories of N. Berdiaev, together with Indian metaphysics, Vedanta, the Christian dogmatic teaching on the theosis of man, Nietzschean self-devotion and certain elements of Heidegger’s philosophy on how man approaches being. Here we also find Dostoevsky’s ideas that man possesses a “spark of God” in his soul that connects him to God and his Son.

This is not a play on words, nor is it a defense that it is impossible to arrive at absolute Truth or some kind of justification for postmodern relativism. It is rather a very complex synthesis between different ideas around which all of Mamleev’s work revolves, not to mention the chaotic thought and darkness into which the soul of modern man has penetrated and of which Christian love is no longer capable of save him: the man of today, even recognizing Christ and accepting him as an ideal, it is impossible for him to save himself, because he must “go beyond” the crossroads where God and the Abyss meet.

The concept of Man as a “metaphysical situation” as understood by Yuri Mamleev is a “quadrillion” that is found “intuitively” in the spiritual alchemy of Man.

Grades:

1. Метафизический реализм писателя-оптимиста. Беседа с А. Вознесенским. Независимая газета. 2000, 25 мая.

2. См .: Лейдерман Н. Л., Липовецкий М.Н. Современная русская литература: 1950-1990 годы. Т. 1. М., 2002. С.17.

3. Мамлеев Ю. В. Россия вечная. М., 2002. С. 116-125. Подробнее об этом см .: Мамлеев Ю. Судьба бытия (гл. “Последняя доктрина”). М., 1997.

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The Radical Outlook is an online news web Portal designed for in-depth news analysis from the Eurasian region and beyond. It is Founded by a geopolitical analyst Shahzada Rahim.
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